Cold Rolled File-Steel Profile Section
We are Manufacture, Stockholder & Distributors of Cold Rolled File Steel, Cold Rolled File Steel Profiles, Cold Rolled File Steel Sections, Cold Rolled High Carbon File Steel, Cold Rolled Alloy File Steel, Cold Rolled Round File Steel, Cold Rolled Square File Steel, Cold Rolled Flat File Steel, Cold Rolled Traingular File Steel, Cold Rolled Half Round File Steel, Cold Rolled Steel for Hand Files, Cold Rolled File Steel Shaped Profiles, Cold Rolled File Steel Shaped Sections, File Steel Flat Bars, File Steel Rods, File Steel Round Bars, File Steel Hex Bars, File Steel Hexagonal Bars, File Steel Square Bars, File Steel Rectangle Bars, File Steel Rectangular Bars, File Steel Traingle Bars, File Steel Traingular Bars, File Steel Half Round Bars, File Steel Profile Bars, File Steel Shaped Bars, File Steel Section Bars, File Steel Precision Bars, File Steel Special Bars, File Steel Strips, File Steel for Key Profiles, File Steel Cross Sections, File Steel Key Sections, File Steel Special Profiles for Railway Industry, File Steel Special Profiles for Wall Connectors, File Steel Profiles for Automotive, File Steel Profiles for Contruction, File Steel Profiles for Agriculture Machinery, File Steel Profiles for Shipbuilding Industry
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel
Manufacture of Cold Rolled High Carbon File Steel
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled High-Carbon File-Steel
Manufacture of Cold Rolled Alloy File Steel
Manufacture of Cold Rolled High-Alloy File-Steel
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Profiles
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Profile
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Sections
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Section
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Flat Bars
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Flat-Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Round Bars
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Round Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Rods
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Rod
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Square Bars
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Square Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Rectangular Bars
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Rectangle Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Half Rounds
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Half-Round Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Traingular Bars
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Traingle Bar
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Special Profiles
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Special-Profile
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Shaped Profiles
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Shaped-Profile
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Key Profiles
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Key-Profile
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Cross Sections
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Cross-Section
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Special Shaped Sections
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Special Shaped Section
Manufacture of Cold Rolled File Steel Special Shaped Profiles
Manufacture of Cold-Rolled File-Steel Special Shaped Profile
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File-Steel
Manufacture of Hot Rolled High Carbon File Steel
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled High-Carbon File-Steel
Manufacture of Hot Rolled Alloy File Steel
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled Alloy File-Steel
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Wire Rods
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Wire-Rod
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Round Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Round Bar
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Profiles
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Profile
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Sections
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Section
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Flat Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Flat Bar
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Square Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Square Bar
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Rectangular Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Rectangle Bar
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Traingular Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Traingle Bar
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Special Profiles
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Special Profile
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Cross Sections
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Cross Section
Manufacture of Hot Rolled File Steel Hexagonal Bars
Manufacture of Hot-Rolled File-Steel Hexagonal Bar
Like every other steel tool of modern manufacture, the file has been improved greatly in quality by
metallurgical and engineering science. The industry has been more especially developed in Sheffield
and the United States, but it is also carried on in Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, France and Italy.
There is a great variety of patterns, sizes and cuts of files. They are made from bars whose cross-sectional
area may be either round, square, flat, triangular (three-square), half-round--i.e., with one face flat, the back
of the file being curved—and a large number of other shapes made for special purposes. Each of these
shapes may be made in various lengths, from the tiny watch makers' and jewellers' file, to the heavy files
used by the engineer -20 inches and upwards in length. The sawmaker uses a "three square" file, cut on
the edges for sharpening hand-saws, but for the handsaw the edge of the file must be thicker and rounded,
to minimize the risk of breaking the band saw tooth. The flat file with one or two rounded edges is used
generally for sharp ening circular saw teeth. The locksmith uses a thin flat file varying in thickness, the jeweller
has standard shapes drawn to a very fine point, while the dentist uses a very fine pointed, solid-handled,
half-round file. The "rasp," with its large, sharp, single teeth is used for wood, hot iron and soft metal; different
varieties are the shoe maker's rasp, the horse rasp for farriers and rasps for cabinet-makers, workers in bone
and other similar materials. Each shape and size of file is made in a variety of cuts, the different cuts are
known as:— rough, middle, common or bastard, second, smooth, dead-smooth and double-dead smooth.
Processes of Production.
The metal used for the manufacture of files must be hard enough to cut steel, and at the same time of a quality
to give maximum durabil ity under rough treatment; the file teeth must be hard without being brittle. The steel
used for the purpose is, therefore, of very good quality with high carbon content. Such a steel, however, in its
normal con dition is a hard and difficult one to manipulate. The six chief processes in the production of the file
consist of :—forging, an nealing, grinding, cutting, hardening and scouring.
Forging and Annealing.—The steel is first received from the rolling mill where it has been rolled to the desired
section, and is cut into suitable lengths. These are then placed, a few at a time, in a furnace and heated to a
bright red heat. They are then withdrawn separately and hammered under a machine hammer. The first operation
of the hammer is to form the "tang" or sharp handle-end of the file, which is later to be inserted into the handle.
The hammer is provided with shaping tools or dies to suit the special section of steel to be dealt with. The file is
then returned to the furnace and the remaining part of the forging operation is completed. The forged file is known
as a "blank." The power hammer employed consists of a top tool or "tup" and a solid base, into which is fixed the
shaping die or tool. These hammers are designed to deliver from 25o to 500 blows per minute according to the
size of the file required. The "blanks" from the hammer must now be brought to a ductile and uniform condition for
the purpose of cutting the teeth. They are, therefore, put into an annealing furnace and heated gradually to the
desired temperature. They are held at that heat, and then cooled. This treatment pro duces a change in the
physical condition of the steel, removing all internal strains and rendering the material suitable for the subsequent
operation of the cutting of the teeth.
Grinding.—The object of grinding is to produce a smooth, even surface on the face of the blank, and to remove
the scale from the surface to be cut. This operation is largely carried out by machinery. A grinding wheel is mounted
in a machine which is made to rotate at a suitable speed, and in addition an oscillating motion is imparted to the
axle of the wheel to prevent grooves being worn into the face of the wheel. The files are fixed in a trough in the
base of the machine, and are completely covered by water. The trough automatically moves to and fro under the
grinding wheel, and provision is made for the grinding wheel to be lowered or raised to grind the files. Special
arrangements are made for grinding half-round and round files.
Cutting.—The operation of forming the teeth in files is known as "file-cutting," and is now almost entirely a machine
operation. Formerly the operation was performed by hand with flat chisels, and the process became an art in which
the skilled file-cutter attained great efficiency. The file-cutting machine is designed to reproduce by mechanical
means the processes adopted by the file-cutter, except that the number of cuts per minute made by the machine
is enormously greater than is possible by hand. The file blank is placed on a lead bed made to the shape of the
file to be cut. The chisel employed for cutting the grooves in the blank has a straight sharp edge and is sufficiently
long to overlap the file blank. The edge is ground and shaped to the desired angles, whetted, and the sharp edge
rubbed off. The grooves are cut across the face of the blank at an angle to the side of the file, which varies for
different materials. Files are made either with a single series of cuts, known as "single-cut" files, or with a double
series of cuts, crossing one another, known as "double cut" files. The single cut files are used for the softer materials
such as brass, lead and wood, and the double cut file is the one commonly used in machine shops. The crossing of
the face of the file by the two series of cuts placed at different angles with one another, as described, has the effect
of breaking up the long rows of single teeth, stretching across the width of the file, into a large number of separate
small pointed teeth each presenting its sharpened point to the surface of the work to be cut. (See figure for the single
cut file, the double cut file and the rasp.) Hardening and Scouring.—On the completion of the cutting op eration the files
undergo a process of hardening. The teeth of the file are first protected from injury by a special plastic covering, and
the file is then heated to the desired temperature for high carbon steel files. It is then quenched by dipping into a brine
bath out of which it is brought before the centre of the file is cold. Whilst in this condition, that is before complete cooling,
the distorted files can be straightened. After hardening, the file is subjected to a process of passing it over a sand-blast jet,
through which steam and sand are forced at about 7o lb. pressure. This treatment leaves a perfectly clean surface on the
finished file. Files are tested in the works by passing, by hand, a "prover" which consists of a hard piece of steel, over the
teeth of the new file, the effect of which must be to leave the teeth undamaged. Further tests of files are made in file-testing
machines, which have been designed to measure the amount of material which the file is capable of removing from a
standardized test-bar during a given number of strokes of the file, and at a standard pressure upon the file.
Care of the File.
Many files are impaired by being im properly used. A very sharp file, for example, should not be used on an oxidized
surface of cast iron, a surface which is itself as hard as the file teeth. A partially worn file should first be used for the purpose,
and the new file for finishing the work only. Care should also be taken to avoid excessive pressure when using a sharp new file.
In using a file for cutting, just enough pressure should be put upon it during the forward stroke to make it cut freely, and the file
should be slightly lifted from the work during the return stroke. Files should be cleaned after use and put away carefully,
not thrown among other metal tools.
A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and
other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are hand tools, made of a case hardened steel bar of rectangular, square, triangular,
or round cross-section, with one or more surfaces cut with sharp, generally parallel teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at
one end, to which a handle may be fitted.
A rasp is a form of file with distinct, individually cut teeth used for coarsely removing large amounts of material.
Files have also been developed with abrasive surfaces, such as natural or synthetic diamond grains or silicon carbide, allowing
removal of material that would dull or resist steel files, such as ceramic.
Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. The cross-section of a file can be flat,
round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. Steel files are made from high carbon steel
(1.0 to 1.25% carbon) and may be through hardened or case hardened.
There is no unitary international standard for file nomenclature; however, there are many generally accepted names for certain
kinds of files. A file is "blunt" if its sides and width are both parallel throughout its length. It is "tapered" if there is a reduction
in its dimensions from its heel toward its point. A file may taper in width, in thickness, or both. A "tang" is a protrusion at the
heel, tapered, parallel sided, or conical, for gripping, inserting in a handle, or mounting in a chuck.
The cut of the file refers to how fine its teeth are. They are defined as (from roughest to smoothest): rough, middle, bastard,
second cut, smooth, and dead smooth. A single-cut file has one set of parallel teeth while a cross-cut or double-cut file has a
second set of cuts forming diamond shaped cutting surfaces. In Swiss-pattern files the teeth are cut at a shallower angle,
and are graded by number, with a number 1 file being coarser than a number 2, etc. Most files have teeth on all faces, but
some specialty flat files have teeth on only one face or one edge, so that the user can come right up to another edge
without damaging the finish on it.
Mill file - The most common shape, single-cut, rectangular in cross section, with an even thickness throughout their length;
they may be either parallel sided or taper slightly in width from heel to end
Flat file - Similar to a mill file, but may be double-cut
Hand file - Parallel in width and tapered in thickness, used for general work
Square file - Gradually tapered and cut on all four sides. Used for a wide variety of tasks
Three square/Triangular file - Triangular in cross-section, which may taper gradually, often to a point on smaller files.
The sides may be equal in cross-section, or have two long and one short surface
Rat tail file - Round in cross-section and gradually tapered over their length. They are used for enlarging round holes or
cutting scalloped edges
Round file - Round in cross section and equal diameter over their length (not tapered). They are used for smoothing
inside holes and circular grooves, and for sharpening certain kinds of saw.
Half round file - Has one flat and one convex surface, and either tapering slightly or maintaining an even thickness,
width, or both over their length
Combination file - Tangless, flat sided or half-round, with two to four cutting surfaces, typically including a combination
of single cut, double cut, or rasp
Barrette files are tapered in width and thickness, coming to a rounded point at the end. Only the flat side is cut, and the
other sides are all safe. For doing flat work.
Checkering files parallel in width and gently tapered in thickness. They have teeth cut in a precise grid pattern, and are
used for making serrations and doing checkering work, as on gunstocks.
Crochet files are tapered in width and gradually tapered in thickness, with two flats and radiused edges, cut all around.
Used in filing junctions between flat and curved surface, and slots with rounded edges.
Crossing files are half round on two sides with one side having a larger radius than the other. Tapered in width and thickness.
For filing interior curved surfaces. The double radius makes possible filing at the junction of two curved surfaces or a straight
and curved surface.
Dreadnought (curved teeth) and millenicut (straight teeth) files both have heavily undercut, sharp but coarse teeth. Both can be
used for rapidly removing large quantities of material from thick aluminum alloy, copper or brass. Today, the millenicut and
dreadnought have found a new use in removing plastic filler materials such as two-part epoxies or styrenes such as those
commonly used in automobile body repairs.
Equalling files are parallel in width and thickness. Used for filing slots and corners.
Farrier Rasp files are tanged rasps used mainly by farriers and blacksmiths. They are flat with a rasp on one side and double
cut on the reverse.
Fret files are square or rectangular with three flat sides and one side having a concave groove. They are used by luthiers to
file a rounded "crown" on the frets of guitars and other fretted instruments. The flat faces are used to dress the ends of the frets,
removing the sharp edges left after the frets are trimmed to length.
Half round ring files taper in width and thickness, coming to a point, and are narrower than a standard half round. Used for filing
inside of rings.
Joint round edge files are parallel in width and thickness, with rounded edges. The flats are safe (no teeth) and cut on the
rounded edges only. Used for making joints and hinges.
Knife files are tapered in width and thickness, but the knife edge has the same thickness the whole length, with the knife edge
having an arc to it. Used for slotting or wedging operations.
Nut files are fine, precise files in sets of graduated thickness, used by luthiers for dressing the slots at the end of the neck which
support the strings of guitars, violins etc., in the correct position.
Pillar files are parallel in width and tapered in thickness for perfectly flat filing. Double cut top and bottom with both sides safe,
these are long, narrow files for precision work.
Pippin files are tapered in width and thickness, generally of a teardrop cross section and having the edge of a knife file. Used
for filing the junction of two curved surfaces and making V-shaped slots.
Planemaker's float Floats are straight, single-cut files which taper used for cutting, flattening and smoothing wood, particularly in
making wooden hand planes.
Round parallel files are similar to round files, except that they do not taper. Shaped like a toothed cylinder.
Saw sharpening files are usually single cut to deliver a smooth finish. They are suited to sharpening saw blades and dressing
tool edges, especially where a finer, sharper edge or smoother surface finish is desired. The Chainsaw file is one example,
used primarily for sharpening chainsaws. These appear to have a round cross-section, but are actually shaped to fit snugly
against the cutting edge of a chainsaw's teeth.
Slitting files are parallel in width with a diamond-shaped cross section. Thinner than knife files and use for filing slots.
Warding files are parallel in thickness, tapered in width, and thin. Like a hand or flat file that comes to a point on the end.
Used for flat work and slotting.
A selection of diamond impregnated files
Instead of having teeth cut into the file's working surface, diamond files have small particles of industrial diamond embedded
in their surface (or into a softer material that is bonded to the underlying surface of the file). The use of diamonds in this manner
allows the file to be used effectively against extremely hard materials, such as stone, glass or very hard metals such as
hardened steel or carbide against which a standard steel file is ineffective. Diamond files are also the only type that may be
used with a back-and-forth motion without damaging the file. These may also be called diamond laps, as the "teeth" are not
regular projections, as in a file, but particles, usually shaped and located randomly and held in place by a softer (any other)
Needle files are small files that are used in applications where the surface finish takes priority over metal removal rates but they
are most suited for smaller work pieces. They are often sold in sets, including different shapes.
Files are produced specifically for use in a filing machine, which is similar in appearance to a scroll saw with a vertically
reciprocating file mounted in the middle of a table. A workpiece is manipulated around the file's face as the shape requires.
A cone point (as pictured in the top and bottom files at left) allows a file to center itself in its mount. Files with flat mounting
surfaces must be secured with set screws.
Filing machines are rarely seen in modern production environments, but may be found in older toolrooms or diemaking
shops as an aid in the manufacture of specialist tooling.
Escapement files, also known as watchmaker's files, are a classification of short, (very) thin files with bastard-cut or embedded
diamond surfaces, similar to needle files in form and function but smaller. Typical dimensions are on the order of approximately
100–140 mm (4–51⁄2 in.) in length and 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 in.) in width. Best used for fine, delicate work on small pieces or mechanisms
(such as escapements), escapement files are commonly used by clock and watchmakers, as well as in crafting jewelry.
During root canal therapy, round files ranging from .06-to-0.8-millimetre (0.0024 to 0.0315 in) diameter files are used to smooth the
narrow canals of the interior of the tooth and thus facilitate disinfection of the internal surface. Typically the files are made of stainless
steel or nickel titanium (NiTi) and come in a variety of styles. Mechanized files, known as rotary files, are also commonly used.
These files attach to the head of a specific oscillating or rotating drill.
Files have forward-facing cutting teeth, and cut most effectively when pushed over the workpiece. A variety of strokes are employed
to stabilize the cutting action and produce a varied result. Pulling a file directly backwards on a workpiece will cause the teeth to dull.
Draw filing is an operation in which the file is grasped at each end, and with an even pressure alternately pulled and pushed
perpendicularly over the work. A variation involves laying the file sideways on the work, and carefully pushing or pulling it across the
work. This catches the teeth of the file sideways instead of head on, and a very fine shaving action is produced. There are also varying
strokes that produce a combination of the straight ahead stroke and the drawfiling stroke, and very fine work can be attained in this fashion.
Using a combination of strokes, and progressively finer files, a skilled operator can attain a surface that is perfectly flat and near mirror finish.
Pinning refers to the clogging of the file teeth with pins, which are material shavings. These pins cause the file to lose its
cutting ability and can scratch the workpiece. A file card, which is a brush with metal bristles, is used to clean the file. (The name, "card",
is the same as used for the "raising cards" (spiked brushes) used in woolmaking.) Chalk can help prevent pinning.
Inspection & Approval Certificates : C/W Certificate (Calibration Works Certificate) EN 10204 3.1 / DIN 50049 3.1 / ISO 10474 3.1 Mill Test Certificate, NACE MR-0103 / NACE MR-0175 / ISO 15156, CE Marked, European Pressure Equipment Directive PED-97/23/EC, AD-2000-WO, ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Sec.II Part A Ed. 2015, API 6A (American Petroleum Institute), with 3.2 certificate duly Certified & Approved by LRS (Lloyd's Register), GL (Germanischer Lloyd), BV (Bureau Veritas), DNV (Det Norske Veritas), ABS (American Bureau of Shipping), SGS, TUV, RINA, IRS (Indian Register of Shipping), NORSOK Approved Standard M-630, M-650 Rev.3
If you have any requirement of above items, please feel free to contact us
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ROLEX METAL DISTRIBUTORS
( A METAL & STEEL Company )
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